In this blog we discussed about the possible application of papercrete in architecture. Papercrete is an experimental material which consists of paper, cement and sand. The research is material based and aims to bring papercrete closer to standardization and define the guidelines of the product development process from the architectural concept to manufacturing assembly and marketing. The physical, mechanical, functional and environmental properties, the construction and economic considerations were defined after several experiments and research.
Papercrete is a low price – lightweight (7 times lighter than concrete)- flexible material which can take several surface textures and colours in a big variety of shapes and sizes. Papercretes performance is limited by certain properties. These will define the design possibilities and restrictions. They relate with the nature of the material and the manufacturing process. Poor compressive strength, creep resistance, long drying period and difficulty to standardize the mix and predict its behaviour need further research. Chemical additives used for water and fire proof insulation materials green status.

There are significant challenges going into business with papercrete but also great opportunities. Papercrete is a new material and like all the new materials there is a period of time which its applications are limited because the information on material properties are still not well defined. Manufacturing, processing and construction techniques, are not developed enough to facilitate its use. Working with a new material means to be able to see the potential that has to improve.

Papercrete is a new material in the market and gives potential for innovation. The first feedback is really positive and the interacation between the research and the design works good.
Deep knowledge in material properties and long term liability, advance in processing and building aspects, in combination with future material technology, will bring papercrete closer to standardization. Getting a building permit will become easier, will attract more investments, and eventually papecrete will be commercially accepted.


Facade requirements

Papercrete’s properties qualify it as a suitable material for facade cladding. In the recent years the prevailing trend in facade technology is the increased complexity to meet the new demands. Papercrete meets most of the requirements and at the same the time raise new research to improve the material properties.
Design is inseparably linked with the outcome of the experiments. The success of the facade panel depends on, if and how we can overcome the design limiting properties. Improving the mix (adding reinforcement), changing the manufacturing process (using less water) and prefabricating the panel (quality control) in combination with computational methods and the advance in cement and fibre technology products (Green Cement, HPFRCC ) gives great potential to the material.

So does papercrete fullfil the requirements of facade industry?



About Menelaos Kokkinos

Menelaos Kokkinos TU Delft
This entry was posted in Introduction. Bookmark the permalink.

8 Responses to Conclusions

  1. Erik says:

    Much of this research has been done by Barry Fuller through Arizona State University. Results are available at his or from ASU

    • I am already in touch with him. We discuss about different experiments that will be useful to conduct (comparison between pressed/unpressed specimens, R-value test, etc). A lot of formal testing is missing, so it wont be difficult to find a subject. Thank you for the remark

  2. Rathish says:

    Really a great compilation of experiments and test in papercrete technology. It is really useful for beginner like me. Is your research work over? I’m currently working on engineering properties of papercrete.
    I would like to get in touch with you for more results.

    • Thank you for your interest. The research is unfortunately finished (no funding to continue for a phd), but I can still help you. You can contact me here or to my personal mail ( with your questions. Most of the information is already in the blog. I made compression and bending testing and creep. I also tried different reinforcement methods. Anyway, let me know if you have any questions, I would be glad to help you.
      Are you doing the research for your studies or what?

  3. Devanandan says:

    I want to do my PG thesis as ” flexural behaviour of partially replaced papercrete concrete”
    Whats ur opinion …..

    • Dear Sir
      I think your idea can form a proposal for a novel research in the field of structural mechanics and building technology. I believe that a lightweight concrete material based on a mixture with papercrete has some strong potentials as a structural material, and it remains a question to be answered about its properties and mechanical behavior under different loading conditions. I believe that its mechanical properties under any kind of bending mechanism will highly depend on the preparation method. I assume with any method of preparation you will end up with a highly anisotropic material. What are your ideas to form the column? Add paper in the concrete mix or make the core of the column with papercrete and the outside with concrete like a two phase material?
      I am highly interested to see the results of such a research, so keep me informed about your study and do not hesitate to contact me for any data or question you may need.
      Best Regards

  4. devanandan says:

    Thank you sir for your reply………I need your support

  5. chundu says:

    Sir, what is the best mix proportion for paper,cement,sand and water for a partition wall?

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s