Author Archives: Menelaos Kokkinos

About Menelaos Kokkinos

Menelaos Kokkinos TU Delft


Does papercrete fulfil the increased needs of a façade cladding technology? Papercrete is an experimental material which replaces an amount of cement with paper in the normal concrete mix. Concrete is the most commonly used material in construction. Its annual … Continue reading

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PaperKrete production

Papercrete is easy to produce but requires accurate measurements. It is important to weight the newspapers before soaking them. The standard process to make the mix is: • Soak newspaper in water overnight to soften the fibres and make mixing … Continue reading

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Specimens don’t shrink symmetrically. The process of making the pulp (drill with special x-shaped head) distributes the fibres unevenly. From the existing specimens I could not define a dominant direction. Anisotropic materials properties vary with the direction of measurement( e.g. … Continue reading

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This report is a research on Precast Papercrete Facade Panels (PPP), as part of my graduation project for the master program of building technology department in TU Delft. This result wouldn’t be possible without advice, constructive criticism and ideas from … Continue reading

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Compressive and bending strength

Papercrete, especially the untreated one, has poor mechanical properties. The compression and bending test gave the following information. σpapercete≈0.90 Mpa (1/25 normal concrete, lower than soft woods) 3 phases elastic-plastic-after starting to crumble becomes stiffer

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Availability and processibility

Papercrete is made from materials widely available and easy to found. Paper comes from a variety of sources and is usually without cost. Manufacturing processes are still not developed enough to facilitate its use. If we decide to go into … Continue reading

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The total cost vary depending what kind of additives or reinforcement is used in the mixture. The untreated mixture lies in the cheapest end of lightweight concretes. Colorants, water and fire sealants increase the price. Low cost materials, lie to … Continue reading

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