Weight and Density

After defining a standard mix [2.4 : 5.1 : 2.5 : 9.5lt every 0.68Kg paper (Paper:Cement:Sand)] which results in a homogeneous volume with smooth surface I made 20 new specimens to test in compression. I removed the forms in day 10 and until they reached their final properties -day 56- i was examining them weekly to get information about materials physical properties.

Diagram 01: average weight loss
Table 01: Deviations between specimens
  • Papecrete weights  almost the 1/8 of a concrete clock with the same size.
  • Specimens loose over 70% of the initial weight
  • Consistent results: Big weight deviation in week 4 because of the specimens proximity
  • Long drying period: 8 weeks until they reach final properties
Diagram 02: Average volume loss
Diagram 03: Average density loss
Diagram 04: Average mass loss
  • Specimens shrink only <5%. In combination with the big weight drop, density and mass also loose more that 75% of the initial value.
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Warm facades

In warm façades, the insulating layer is mounted directly on the outside or the inside of the façade construction. When the thermal insulating layer is applied on the outside, it must also be water-resistant to ensure that the insulating properties are not lost due to weathering. If the insulating layer is inside, the ability to store heat no longer influence the interior environment.
Thermally insulated facades are designed in such a way that controls the drainage of water from the transom into the mullion. In combination with the improved sealant for the facade construction, they become tight construction elements.
Same principles in detailing also apply here. Systems with rivets and fixings are not applicable. I will consetrate in adhesively bonded systems.
Further research is needed in how:
• the insulation material connects with the panel.
• the insulation material connects with the wall

A wide range of insulation products has been developed to be used in our warm wall systems (information taken Knauf Marmorit Warm Wall Systems)

Insulated systems

Warm Wall systems are the most cost effective way to insulate new and old buildings providing efficient thermal properties and allowing for creative design. Companies have developed many differt systems which fullfil the requirements ofdifferent uses. In the appendix A briefly mention the system used by Kanuf. (to show the great variety)

Joint with the wall
The connection of the panels with the wall depends on the insulating material. Connetion of insulating material with the wall is a more conventional system
• mechanically fixed to the wall
• metal sheet between wall and insulation
• bonded with a surface coating applied to insulation
• Specially formulated adhesive
• Standard basecoat (SM700) or other protection foil
• Adhesive (Existing) Insulation and Finish Duo Adhesive before Tongued and Grooved EPS

Warm facade systems fulfil the ever increasing requirement for thermal and sound insulation, whilst providing a weatherproof and decorative finish. The system is designed for greater thermal performance. The benefits are
• Thermally efficient
• Thinner sections
• No loss of internal space
• Quicker construction process
• Reduced or eliminated scaffolding time
• Weatherproof
• Less disruption to occupants
• Extends the building life
• Manufacturers warranty

 

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Mockups

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General drawings and detailing

Papercrete is a soft an fragile material. Systems with rivets or undercut anchors are not adequate. Wind load would create fracture joints. Adhesives wont also work because of papercrete’s surface rough texture. Wind load has to be contributed equally in larger area and not into 4 points. One solution is to use rivets every a predefined distance. These require further experimentation but it probably becomes to complicated.
Mock ups were made to test different textures shapes, sizes and joints

The mock-ups were damaged during removing the forms and joints failed when were tested to keep the panels weight. After specimens were dry they became stronger We should be extra careful during removing the forms because when panels are wet they are extremely fragile. We should let the specimens dry before applying any load.

Design process

Open and closed joint system

Cold facade experimentation

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Density-strength diagram

The purpose of this test is to identify the optimized performance of papercrete in term of density and flexural strength. Strength is determined on the day 14, 21, 28 and 35 days for each sample (day 7 remove forms). There were four samples for each test and the results would be taken as the average of these.

Results
• Flexural strength increase higher while densitydecreases.
• Simple mix specimens sterngth increases more than 80%, when glass fibers increase around 40%.
• After 4th week the increase is smaller but the deviations in values become smaller
• Glass fibers have bigger deviation in values

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Embodied energy

Embodied energy
The embodied energy is the total energy that must be consumed to create 1 kg of usable material measured in MJ/kg or an entire product life cycle [5]. Scientists have not yet agreed to absolute universal values because there are many variables to take into account. The processing energy and the end-of-life potential must also taken into account.
In order to be ale to reduce drastically the embodied energy is important to identify the phase of product life that causes greatest concern: production, manufacture, use or disposal. Papercrete panel is material intensive and depend less on energy.
Papercrete embodied energy
Calculating embodied energy is really complicated process. I experimentally predicted it using concrete as reference.
Papercrete has similar life cycle with concrete with difference the substance of some amount of cement with paper. In terms of embodied energy this has both pros and cons. Recycled paper has more embodied energy from cement which mean the input energy in more. From the other hand the CO2 emissions during the process are reduced. Precasting the panels increase the total embodied energy.

The total embodied energy must be similar to concrete.
Papercrete Embodied energy= 2 .0 MJ/kg (per weight) or 4700 MJ/m3 (per volume)
The lifecycle of papercrete includes raw material extraction, transport, manufacture, assembly, installation, disassembly, deconstruction and/or decomposition.

Bar chart of embodied energy of basic materials by weight. By this measure papercrete is low energy intensive material

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Environmental properties

It is very important to calculate the impact that papercrete has in the environment during the whole life cycle. Building regulations require minimum thermal standards for cladding. They should provide an acceptable level of thermal comfort with minimal environmental impact.
There are variety of properties which effect the ecological and human environment. Most of them are difficult to quantify including pollution renewability, recyclability, labour exploitation, etc.
Embodied energy is an environmental property which allows us to compare environmental impact of different materials.

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